Consider the system of necessary (basic) calculations on the example of an industrial enterprise.

Consider the system of necessary (basic) calculations on the example of an industrial enterprise.

The formation of different types of personnel structures and labor resources at both the macro and micro levels in the coming years will be influenced by the following factors and general trends:

Intensive redistribution of workers from industrial and agricultural activities in the information sphere and in the sphere of labor services. Inclusion in the labor force of employees with a higher level than those who leave the working age. Increasing the share of auxiliary mental work (today it is several times less than in developed countries with market economies). Growing demand for skilled labor (operators, adjusters, programmers-operators), which can be largely met by the unemployed in the categories of managers and specialists. Slowdown in the rate of decline in the share of low- and unskilled labor due to a sharp reduction in the last five years of technical re-equipment of existing enterprises. The education system does not sufficiently take into account possible and existing technological changes, continuing to reproduce qualified personnel mainly according to the old professional scheme. The entry of Ukraine’s economy into a hyperinflationary regime causes an increase in unemployment, which today is still manifested mainly in hidden forms.

The formation of the market mechanism and the system of state regulation of the labor market require consideration of these and other objective trends, their positive and negative impact on the functioning of the economy as a whole and individual enterprises.

Assessment of labor potential of the enterprise.

Management of labor resources, ensuring their effective use necessitates the formation of a system for assessing the labor potential of the enterprise.

First of all, it is necessary to distinguish between attendance, accounting and average number of employees at the enterprise. Attendance includes all permanent, temporary and seasonal workers who are hired for a period of one or more days, regardless of whether they are at work, on vacation, business trip, dismissed due to illness or other reasons.

The average number of employees for a given period is defined as the sum of the average monthly number divided by the number of months in the calculation period. The difference between the registration and attendance numbers characterizes the reserve (mainly workers), which should be used to replace those who do not go to work for good reasons.

Determining the number of employees in all categories

Outlining the goals and directions of development of the enterprise, its management should determine the resources necessary for their implementation, including labor.

Planning of labor resources at the existing enterprise begins with an assessment of their availability. The latter involves an inventory of jobs, identifying the number of employees in each operation, which ensures the realization of the ultimate goal (creation of products, provision of services).

Analysis and further calculations are carried out by categories of workers (workers, managers, specialists, employees), and for each of them – by professions, specialties, categories. For mental workers, it is possible to use a system of inventory of labor skills or specialties, which provides for the registration of professional skills of employees, indicating the number of employees who own them.

Calculations of the number are based not only on the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the labor resources themselves, but also on the possible level of their use, analysis of the determining factors "’- technical, organizational, socio-economic.

The objects of analysis are:

nomenclature of manufactured products and services provided; loss of working time and their causes; nature and comparative level of technological processes and equipment; progressiveness and compliance with modern requirements of labor and production organization; level of work motivation; norms of service and production, the level of their actual implementation, etc.

Determining the planned number of staff depends on the specifics of the enterprise, the peculiarities of its operation. In particular:

calculations in their volume will be different for enterprises of mass and serial production in comparison with enterprises of single and experimental production; an enterprise that radically diversifies its activities will encounter much greater problems in the calculations than an enterprise that expands only the volume of production or provision of services; the enterprise, the production of which is rhythmic throughout the year, is aware of the problems of seasonal production, including in the calculations of the number of staff.

Given the significant organizational changes (for example, the creation of a new enterprise), the assessment of future labor needs is a rather difficult task. In this case, typical structures, models, analogs are used.

When determining the number for the long term it is necessary to take into account environmental factors, namely:

market conditions associated with a particular activity; cyclical economic development, anticipation of a possible general economic downturn; regional features of the labor market (relocation of production capacity to regions with lower labor costs); state (government) programs, orders, contracts (in accordance with the latter, the company is obliged to create new jobs); legal aspects (laws, agreements with trade unions, etc.) that regulate labor relations, protect othersheresies of certain categories of the population and workers; opportunities to use temporary employment, home-based work.

The technique of calculating the planned number of certain categories of employees is determined by the specifics of their professional activities and industry characteristics of the operation of an enterprise. But in all cases, it should be based on the consideration of possible labor cost savings by factors.

Consider the system of necessary (basic) calculations on the example of an industrial enterprise.

Table 2. Calculation of the balance of working time of the average employee (figures are conditional).


Expected results


of the current year

settlement year

Number of calendar days



Weekends and holidays



Nominal fund of working hours, days



Absenteeism, days



Of them:









non-exits permitted by law



with the permission of the administration






round-the-clock downtime




Attendance working hours, days



The average length of the working day, hours



Intra-alternating loss of working time and downtime, hours



Effective time fund for the year, hours




The number of main workers employed in non-standard work () – control of the technological process, management of apparatus, machines and other equipment – is calculated according to service standards.

The number of management staff, specialists, employees is calculated for each function by the method of direct rationing, if the data on labor intensity are reliable. In the absence of certain information or complexity of calculations, you can offer a method of normalizing the number of these categories of personnel using the correlation dependence of the type.

When determining the number of management staff are guided by standard staffing schedules (schemes, models), developed by the science of management and practice in a particular field of activity. Additional needs of staff for the long-term planning period) is identified on the basis of comparing its actual availability and the need for the planning period for individual professions and qualifications.

It is calculated as the expected increase, taking into account the compensation reduction (retirement, conscription, etc.), replacement of practitioners by specialists, and so on.

June 16, 2011

Integral efficiency of the enterprise. Abstract

The concept and types of efficiency. Measurements and methodological definitions. Growth factors

The concept and types of efficiency

Production efficiency is a comprehensive reflection of the results of the use of means of production and labor over a period of time. A generic sign of efficiency may be the need to achieve the goal of production and economic activity of the enterprise with the lowest cost per unit of labor or time.

Ultimately, the interpretation of efficiency, which economic category is determined by the objectively valid law of saving time.

Production efficiency, as the most important component for determining its efficiency, should not be interpreted unambiguously.

It is necessary to distinguish:

the end result of the production process; the final economic result of the enterprise or other integration structure as the primary autonomous link of the economy.

The first reflects the material result of the production process, measured by the volume of production in kind and value forms.

The second includes not only the quantity of manufactured products, but also its consumer value.

The end result of the production process for a living period of time, and net output, ie newly created value, and the end result of commercial activity – profit.

Types of production efficiency are distinguished mainly on the basis of the obtained results of economic activity of the enterprise.

Economic efficiency – is reflected through various cost indicators that characterize the intermediate and final results of production at the enterprise or other integration production structure. Such indicators include:

the volume of commodity, net or sold response; the amount of profit; profitability of production savings of certain types of resources.

Social efficiency – is to reduce the length of the working week, increase the number of new jobs (employment, improving working conditions, the environment).