Later, its modifications appeared in St. Petersburg – heavy aircraft “Ilya Muromets”.
In 2001, six launches of Ukrainian Zenit-2, Zenit-3SL, Cyclone-2, and Cyclone-3 launch vehicles were launched. 15 spacecraft were launched into orbit, one of which was the Ukrainian-Russian spacecraft “AUOS-SM-KF” designed to implement a program of solar activity research within the joint Ukrainian-Russian project “KORONAS”.
On June 15, 2002, the last launch of the Zenit-3SL launch vehicle was carried out. The Galaxy IIIC spacecraft was launched into orbit.
On October 24, 2002, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the Third National Space Program of Ukraine for 2003-2007.
On December 20, 2002, the Dnipro conversion launch vehicle launched six spacecraft from foreign customers into orbit.
As we can see, the contribution of Ukrainian scientists to the development of world astronautics is quite solid and rich.
1. Kovalets IM Ukraine and space. – K., 2002.
2. Cosmonautics. A small encyclopedia. – M., 1989.
Founders of aerobatics: biographies and achievements. Abstract
The range of the first manned flight in a motorized airplane “Flyer-1”, which was made on December 17, 1903 by the brothers Orville and Wilber Wright, was 37 meters, and it lasted 12 seconds. But this buy a compare essay now short flight opened a new era in human history
Apparently, it took place surprisingly on time, because after him the development of aviation went seven miles. The Wright brothers themselves initially held the lead in this process. By the end of 1904, they could hold the plane in the air for 5 minutes, and in 1905, they flew 39 km in 38 minutes, describing circles over the airfield. In 1906 the brothers received a patent for their invention, but only in 1908 did the world learn about their outstanding achievements.
Meanwhile, new countries and people joined the process of aviation development. Relevant works were carried out in Russia at that time, and largely on the territory of Ukraine. We can be proud that the beginning of the history of domestic aviation was closely connected with the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, which, in the full sense of the word, became a real cradle of a new great cause.
Aerobatics – the famous “Nesterov loop” which marked the beginning of a new tactic of air combat, this year on September 9 turned 92 years old.
On this day in 1913, the military pilot Peter Nesterov over Kiev made a “dead loop” – a closed curve in the air vertically. This event glorified not only the performer, but also aircraft. For this, Nesterov was recognized worthy of the Gold Medal of the Russian Society of Aeronautics. “Loop” became known by his name.
Peter Nesterov is one of the founders of aerobatics in world aviation.
Peter Nikolaevich Nesterov was born on February 27 (15 in the old style) in 1887 in Nizhny Novgorod, in the family of an officer. In 1904 he graduated from the Nizhny Novgorod Cadet Corps. In 1906 the Mikhailovsky Artillery School, in 1912 the St. Petersburg Officer’s Aeronautical School, was seconded to the aviation department of the same school. In 1913 he received the rank of military pilot and was assigned to the air detachment formed in Kiev at the 7th Airborne Company, then appointed chief of the 11th Corps Detachment of the 3rd Air Force.
Even then, the command and colleagues drew attention to his courage and remarkable ability in piloting techniques. Peter Nikolaevich Nesterov built a glider of his own design. He designed the plane. Close friends knew that he harbored the idea of a “dead loop” to implement which in the aviation department was not possible. All innovation and creativity stopped here, and Lieutenant Nesterov knew this from personal experience. Nesterov has a famous phrase: “There is support everywhere in the air.”
In the spring of 1913 Peter Nikolaevich was sent to the aviation company in Kiev. In the military unit, he developed in detail a plan for the implementation of a daring plan, analyzed the aerodynamic aspects of the new aerobatic figure. His own scheme of “dead loop” has been preserved, where the required design height (800-1000 m), the diving trajectory without a motor (up to a height of 600-700 m) and other reasonable and clearly marked elements of the new figure are quite accurately marked.
And here came the historic day of September 9 (August 27 in the old style) in 1913, about which the newspapers wrote two days later: “On August 27 there was a significant fact in the field of aviation:” dead loop. “
With his bold and well-prepared experiment, PN Nesterov initiated aerobatics, the importance of which in modern air combat is difficult to overestimate.
On November 24, 1913, a commission of the Council of the Russian Aeronautical Society and the Scientific and Technical Society, chaired by Major General PI Verbitsky, unanimously decided: “To issue Lieutenant Nesterov a gold medal on behalf of the Russian Aeronautical Society. On airplane control with vertical rolls “.
Participating in the First World War, Nesterov fought on the Southwest Front with Austrian aircraft. The Albatross aircraft, which appeared over their airfield near Zholkva in the Lviv province, caused problems for Russian aviators in particular.
On August 26, 1914, the Albatross appeared twice. The first time the enemy, as they say, fled from Nesterov, but soon reappeared. And then Peter Nikolaevich decided to make a ram. According to eyewitnesses of this event, lieutenants V. Sokolov and A. Kovanko Jr., the Austrian flew at an altitude of 1000-1500 m. Nesterov on his high-speed “Morana” went across the “Albatross”. Here he is already above the enemy, making a circle over him. The Austrian again tried to escape, accelerating the plane by slowing down at full engine speed.
PN Nesterov’s maneuvers are fast and decisive. “Nesterov came in behind,” writes researcher KI Trunov, “caught up with the Austrian and hit the Albatross like a falcon hitting a clumsy heron. The bright wings of the Moran flashed in the air and he crashed into an Austrian plane. It was 12 hours and 5 minutes. After the ram “Moran” began to fall down in a spiral. The engine separated from the plane – it fell 130 meters from the plane … PN Nesterov was thrown from a damaged plane, and he fell 25 meters from him. was thrown from the plane, it was not possible to establish. According to some indications, it happened at the time of collision, on others – much later. ” It was the first ram in the history of world aviation, and the death of a brave pilot is rightly considered heroic.
In 1951, the city of Zholkva, Lviv region, was renamed the city of Nesterov. A monument-obelisk has been erected at the place of death of the hero-aviator. In 1949, Orangery Street in Gatchina was renamed Pilot Nesterov Street. A memorial plaque with the inscription: “In this house in 1912 lived a prominent pilot Peter Nikolaevich Nesterov, the founder of aerobatics and the creator of the first in the history of aviation ram” was installed in the house No. 16 on Chkalov Street, where PN Nesterov lived.
The glorious name of Nesterov includes a pilot-designer, a bright figure of the Kyiv School of Aircraft Construction – an outstanding world-famous designer Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972). In the autumn of 1907 he entered the KPI, where he studied until 1911. Sikorsky became one of the active participants in the helicopter section of the CPT, which was headed by one of the Kasyanenko brothers, Andriy. In the summer of 1908, Igor Sikorsky began developing his first helicopter, and in 1909 – its construction. Unfortunately, the car did not take off. Taking into account the test results, in the spring of 1910 Igor Sikorsky created a second helicopter, which also failed to take off.
Then Igor Sikorsky in association with the son of the Kiev merchant Fedor Ivanovich Bilinkin, who already had some experience in this matter, began to create his first biplane BIS G1 (Bilinkin, Jordan, Sikorsky). Then it was rebuilt on the BIS # 2 aircraft, in which on June 3, 1910, in the presence of the sports commissars of the CPT, Igor Sikorsky made a successful flight in a straight line 182 m long at an altitude of 1.2 m for 12 s. Subsequently, about 50 flights were made at an altitude of 10 m, but with a short duration.
In his C-3 plane, Igor Sikorsky passed the exam for the title of pilot-aviator, during which he performed five “eights” in the air and landed successfully. The Russian Imperial Aeroclub on behalf of the International Aviation Federation issued him a pilot’s license for No. 64. At the general meeting of the Imperial Russian Technical Society on January 21, 1912, Sikorsky was awarded the medal “For useful work in aeronautics and for self -development “.
In April 1912, the Russian-Baltic Carriage Plant acquired from Igor Sikorsky exclusive rights to the S-6A biplane and invited him to the position of chief designer of the aviation department, relocated the same year from Riga to St. Petersburg. The technical staff of the new department consisted mainly of Kyiv designers who moved to St. Petersburg at the invitation of I. Sikorsky.
And in the summer of 1913 the world’s first four-engine plane “Russian Knight” took off. Later, its modifications appeared in St. Petersburg – heavy aircraft “Ilya Muromets”. Foreign experts were forced to admit that Russia had become a leading power in curbing the air ocean.
After leaving for the United States, Sikorsky developed more than 65 aircraft designs. From 1939 until the end of his life he designed and built some of the best helicopters in the world.
Cherkasy natives brothers Yevhen, Hryhoriy, Andriy and Ivan Kasyanenko are rightly considered to be the founders of Ukrainian aviation. After the creation of the aeronautical circle at the KPI, Yevhen Kasyanenko headed the “Airplanes” section and Andriy headed the “Helicopters” section. In addition to scientific and organizational work, they carried out fruitful design work. From 1910 to 1921, the brothers built six aircraft. It is worth mentioning “Kasyanenko-4” – a monoplane with a low-power engine. Yevhen Kasyanenko especially promoted the idea of a low-power aircraft of wide application. In addition to building airplanes, the Kasyanenko brothers developed air propellers, which were serially produced in KPI aircraft workshops during the First World War.